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<![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="2050"/> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body lang=RU link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:35.4pt'> <div class=Section1> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>5:F8O ! 48</span></b><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt'>#+</span></b> </p> <p>;0=</p> <ol start=1 type=1> <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><span style='mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><a href="#>=>A0E0@84K">>=>A0E0@84K.</a><o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><span style='mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><a href="#8A0E0@84K">8A0E0@84K.</a><o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><span style='mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><a href="#>;8A0E0@84K">>;8A0E0@84K.</a><o:p></o:p></span></li> </ol> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>#3;52>4K  MB> ?@8@>4=K5 A>548=5=8O, 8<5NI85 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 A>AB02 C<sub>n</sub>(H<sub>2</sub>O)<sub>m</sub>. E ?>4@0745;ONB =0 =87:><>;5:C;O@=K5 C3;52>4K 8 ?@>4C:BK 8E ?>;8:>=45=A0F88. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><i>>=>A0E0@84K</i>  <>=><5@K, 87 >AB0B:>2 :>B>@KE A>AB>OB C3;52>4K 1>;55 A;>6=>3> AB@>5=8O. </p> <p><i>;83>A0E0@84K  </i>>;83><5@K, A>45@60I85 >B 2 4> 10 <>=>A0E0@84=KE >AB0B:>2. </p> <p style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><i>>;8A0E0@84K  </i> ?>;8<5@K, 2:;NG0NI85 4> =5A:>;L:8E BKAOG <>=>A0E0@84=KE 725=L52. <br> &nbsp; <br> &nbsp; </p> <p><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt'>1. <a name=>=>A0E0@84K>>=>A0E0@84K</a></span></b><span style='mso-bookmark:>=>A0E0@84K'> </span></p> <p><b><i>1.1. !B@>5=85 8 :;0AA8D8:0F8O</i></b></p> <p>>=>A0E0@84K  MB> ?>;8384@>:A8:0@1>=8;L=K5 A>548=5=8O, 2 :>B>@KE :064K9 0B>< C3;5@>40 (:@><5 :0@1>=8;L=>3>) A2O70= A 3@C??>9 . 1I0O D>@<C;0 <>=>A0E0@84>2  !<sub>n</sub>(H<sub>2</sub>O)<sub>n</sub>, 345 n =3-9. </p> <p>> E8<8G5A:><C AB@>5=8N @07;8G0NB: </p> <ul type=disc> <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><i><span style='mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>0;L4>7K  </span></i><span style='mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><>=>A0E0@84K, A>45@60I85 0;L45384=CN 3@C??C;<o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><i><span style='mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:5B>7K  </span></i><span style='mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><>=>A0E0@84K, A>45@60I85 :5B>==CN 3@C??C (:0: ?@028;>, 2 ?>;>65=88 2).<o:p></o:p></span></li> </ul> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> 7028A8<>AB8 >B 4;8=K C3;5@>4=>9 F5?8 <>=>A0E0@84K 45;OBAO =0 <i>B@8>7K, B5B@>7K, ?5=B>7K, 35:A>7K</i> 8 B.4. 1KG=> <>=>A0E0@84K :;0AA8D8F8@CNB A CG5B>< A@07C 42CE MB8E ?@87=0:>2, =0?@8<5@: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=389 height=89 id="_x0000_i1070" src=Image259.gif></span></p> <p style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'> ?@8@>45 2AB@5G0NBAO ?@>872>4=K5 <>=>A0E0@84>2, A>45@60I85 0<8=>3@C??C (<i>0<8=>A0E0@0</i>), :0@1>:A8;L=CN 3@C??C (<i>A80;>2K5 :8A;>BK, 0A:>@18=>20O :8A;>B0)</i>, 0 B0:65 0B><  2<5AB> >4=>9 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E 3@C??  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?@8 0=><5@=>< 0B><5 C3;5@>40 2 ?8@0=>7=>< F8:;5 70=OBL 0:A80;L=>5 ?>;>65=85 =07K20NB <i>0=><5@=K< MDD5:B><. </i>4=> 87 2>7<>6=KE >1JOA=5=89 0=><5@=>3> MDD5:B0 A>AB>8B 2 =51;03>?@8OB=>< 48?>;L-48?>;L=>< 2708<>459AB288 <564C 48?>;5< 0B><0 :8A;>@>40 F8:;0 (A CG5B>< >@85=B0F88 53> A2>1>4=KE M;5:B@>==KE ?0@) 8 48?>;5< M:7>F8:;8G5A:>9 A2O78 !-X, :>B>@K5 2 <span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>-0=><5@5 ?0@0;;5;L=K, 2A;54AB285 G53> >BB0;:820=85 <564C =8<8 A8;L=55, G5< 2&nbsp; <span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>-0=><5@5. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=372 height=129 id="_x0000_i1056" src=Image273.gif></span></p> <p style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'>5;8G8=0 0=><5@=>3> MD5:B0 7028A8B >B ?@8@>4K @0AB2>@8B5;O. 0?@8<5@, A>;L20B0F8O 3@C??K  2 2>4=KE @0AB2>@0E ?@82>48B : >A;01;5=8N 0=><5@=>3> MDD5:B0 C A2>1>4=KE <>=>A0E0@84>2. <br> &nbsp; <br> &nbsp; </p> <p><b><i>1.2. %8<8G5A:85 A2>9AB20</i></b></p> <p>%8<8G5A:85 A2>9AB20 <>=>A0E0@84>2 >?@545;ONBAO =0;8G85< :0@1>=8;L=>9 3@C??K (2 0F8:;8G5A:>9 D>@<5), ?>;C0F5B0;L=>3> 384@>:A8;0 (2 F8:;8G5A:8E D>@<0E) 8 A?8@B>2KE  3@C??. </p> <p><b><i>>AAB0=>2;5=85</i></b> </p> <p>@8 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 :0@1>=8;L=>9 3@C??K 0;L4>7 >1@07CNBAO <=>3>0B><=K5 A?8@BK  <i>3;8F8BK</i>. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=278 height=97 id="_x0000_i1055" src=Image274.gif></span></p> <p> ;01>@0B>@=KE CA;>28OE 4;O 2>AcB0=>2;5=8O 8A?>;L7CNB NaBH<sub>4</sub>.  ?@><KH;5==>AB8 ?@8<5=ONB :0B0;8B8G5A:>5 384@8@>20=85. "0:8< >1@07>< ?>;CG0NB 70<5=8B5;8 A0E0@0: 87 D-3;N:>7K - A>@18B (D-3;NF8B), 87 D-:A8;>7K  :A8;8B. </p> <p>>AAB0=>2;5=85 0;L4>7 ?@82>48B :  C@02=820=8N DC=:F8>=0;L=KE 3@C?? =0 :>=F0E F5?8.  @57C;LB0B5 87 =5:>B>@KE 0;L4>7 (M@8B@>7K, @81>7K, :A8;>7K, 0;;>7K, 30;0:B>7K) >1@07CNBAO >?B8G5A:8 =50:B82=K5 <57>-A>548=5=8O, =0?@8<5@: </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=308 height=106 id="_x0000_i1054" src=Image275.gif></span></p> <p> 07=K5 0;L4>7K ?@8 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 <>3CB 40BL >48= 8 B>B 65 A?8@B. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=513 height=152 id="_x0000_i1053" src=Image276.gif></span></p> <p>"0:0O :>=D83C@0F8>==0O 2708<>A2O7L <564C 3;8F8B0<8 8A?>;L7>20;0AL 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O AB5@5>E8<8G5A:>9 :>=D83C@0F88 <>=>A0E0@84>2. </p> <p>@8 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 :5B>7 87 :0@1>=8;L=>9 3@C??K 2>7=8:05B =>2K9 E8@0;L=K9 F5=B@ 8 >1@07C5BAO A<5AL =5@02=KE :>;8G5AB2 480AB5@5><5@=KE A?8@B>2 (M?8<5@>2 ?> !-2). </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=424 height=132 id="_x0000_i1052" src=Image277.gif></span></p> <p>-B0 @50:F8O 4>:07K205B, GB> D-D@C:B>70, D-3;N:>70 8 D-<0==>70 8<5NB >48=0:>2K5 :>=D83C@0F88 E8@0;L=KE F5=B@>2 !-2, !-3, 8 !-4. </p> <p><b><i>:8A;5=85</i></b> </p> <p>A;54AB285 A2>59 ?>;8DC=:F8>=0;L=>AB8 0;L4>7K >:8A;ONBAO ?>-@07=><C ?@8 459AB288 @07;8G=KE >:8A;8B5;59. @8 MB>< <>65B 1KBL >:8A;5=0 :0@1>=8;L=0O 3@C??0, >10 :>=F0 C3;5@>4=>9 F5?8 8;8 @0AI5?;5=0 A2O7L !-!. </p> <p><i>>;CG5=85 3;8:>=>2KE :8A;>B</i> </p> <p>@8 <O3:>< >:8A;5=88 0;L4>7, =0?@8<5@, ?>4 459AB285< 1@><=>9 2>4K, 70B@038205BAO B>;L:> :0@1>=8;L=0O 3@C??0 8 >1@07CNBAO <i>3;8:>=>2K5 :8A;>BK</i>, :>B>@K5 >G5=L ;53:> >1@07CNB ?OB8- 8 H5AB8G;5==K5 ;0:B>=K. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=464 height=243 id="_x0000_i1051" src=Image278.gif></span></p> <p>5B>7K 2 MB8E CA;>28OE =5 >:8A;ONBAO 8 <>3CB 1KBL B0:8< >1@07>< 2K45;5=K 87 A<5A59 A 0;L4>70<8.. </p> <p>;L4>7K 8 :5B>7K 40NB @50:F88, E0@0:B5@=K5 B>;L:> 4;O A>548=5=89, A>45@60I8E 0;L45384=CN 3@C??C: >=8 2>AAB0=02;820NB 2 I5;>G=>9 A@545 :0B8>=K <5B0;;>2 Ag<sup>+</sup> (Ag(NH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>OH  <i>@50:B82 ">;5=A0) 8 Cu</i><sup>2+</sup> (:><?;5:A Cu<sup>2+</sup> A B0@B@0B-8>=><  <i>@50:B82 $5;8=30</i>). @8 MB>< 3;8:>=>2K5 :8A;>BK >1@07CNBAO 2 =57=0G8B5;L=>< :>;8G5AB25, B0: :0: 2 I5;>G=>9 A@545 ?@>B5:05B 453@040F8O C3;5@>4=>3> A:5;5B0 <>=>A0E0@84>2. </p> <p><i>;L4>70 + Ag(NH</i><sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub><sup>+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </sup>----&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3;8:>=>20O :8A;>B0 + Ag&nbsp; + ?@>4C:BK 45AB@C:B82=>3> >:8A;5=8O </p> <p>;L4>70 +Cu<sup>2+&nbsp;&nbsp; </sup>----&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3;8:>=>20O :8A;>B0 + Cu<sub>2</sub>O&nbsp; +&nbsp; ?@>4C:BK 45AB@C:B82=>3> >:8A;5=8O </p> <p>!0E0@0, A?>A>1=K5 2>AAB0=02;820BL @50:B82K ">;5=A0 8 $5;8=30, =07K20NB <i>2>AAB0=02;820NI8<8</i>. 5B>7K ?@>O2;ONB 2>AAB0=02;820NI85 A2>9AB20 70 AG5B 87><5@870F88 2 I5;>G=>9 A@545 2 0;L4>7K, :>B>@K5 8 2708<>459AB2CNB 40;55 A >:8A;8B5;5<. @>F5AA ?@52@0I5=8O :5B>7K 2 0;L4>7C ?@>8AE>48B 2 @57C;LB0B5 5=>;870F88. 1@07CNI89AO 87 :5B>7K 5=>; O2;O5BAO >1I8< 4;O =55 8 2-E 0;L4>7 (M?8<5@>2 ?> !-2). "0:, 2 A;01>I5;>G=>< @0AB2>@5 2 @02=>25A88 A D-D@C:B>7>9 =0E>4OBAO 5=48>;, D-3;N:>70 8 D-<0==>70. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=451 height=286 id="_x0000_i1050" src=Image279.gif></span></p> <p>708<>?@52@0I5=8O 2 I5;>G=>< @0AB2>@5 <564C 0;L4>70<8, M?8<5@0<8 ?> !-2, =07K20NB<i> M?8<5@870F859.</i> </p> <p><i>>;CG5=85 3;8:0@>2KE :8A;>B</i> </p> <p>@8 459AB288 @07102;5==>9 07>B=>9 :8A;>BK >:8A;O5BAO >10 :>=F0 C3;5@>4=>3> A:5;5B0 0;L4>7 8 >1@07CNBAO <i>3;8:0@>2K5 :8A;>BK</i>. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=282 height=104 id="_x0000_i1049" src=Image280.gif></span></p> <p>@8 >1@07>20=88 3;8:0@>2KE :8A;>B, :0: 8 2 A;CG05 3;8F8B>2, ?@>8AE>48B  C@02=820=85 DC=:F8>=0;L=KE 3@C?? =0 :>=F0E F5?8 8 87 =5:>B>@KE 0;L4>7 >1@07CNBAO <57>-A>548=5=8O. </p> <p>:8A;5=85 :5B>7 07>B=>9 :8A;>B>9 ?@>B5:05B A @0AI5?;5=85< !-! A2O759. </p> <p><i>:8A;5=85 28F-48>;L=>9 3@C??8@>2:8</i> </p> <p>>=>A0E0@84K A>45@60B 28F-48>;L=CN 3@C??8@>2:C, :>B>@0O ?@5B5@?5205B >:8A;8B5;L=>5 @0AI5?;5=85 ?>4 459AB285< 8>4=>9 :8A;>BK 8;8 B5B@00F5B0B0 A28=F0. </p> <p><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>HOCH</span><sub><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:7.5pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>2</span></sub><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>(CHOH)<sub>n</sub>CHO + (n+1) HIO</span><sub><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:7.5pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>4</span></sub><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>&nbsp;&nbsp; ----&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp; (n+1) HCOOH + HCHO + (n+1) HIO</span><sub><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 7.5pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>3</span></sub><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language: EN-US'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p> 50:F8O ?@>B5:05B :>;8G5AB25==>. > A>AB02C ?@>4C:B>2 8 :>;8G5AB2C 87@0AE>4>20==>9 8>4=>9 :8A;>BK ?>;CG0NB F5==CN 8=D>@<0F8N > AB@>5=85 <>=>A0E0@84>2 8 8E ?@>872>4=KE. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=488 height=113 id="_x0000_i1048" src=Image281.gif></span></p> <p><b><i>>;CG5=85 3;8:>784>2</i></b> </p> <p>&8:;8G5A:85 D>@<K <>=>A0E0@84>2 A>45@60B =5A:>;L:> 3@C?? , >4=0 87 :>B>@KE  <i>3;8:>784=K9 (</i>?>;C0F5B0;L=K<i>9</i>) 384@>:A8;, >B;8G05BAO ?>2KH5==>9 A:;>==>ABLN : @50:F8O< =C:;5>D8;L=>3> 70<5I5=8O. </p> <p>725AB=>, GB> 2 ?@8ACBAB288 :8A;>B=KE :0B0;870B>@>2 ?>;C0F5B0;8 @5038@CNB A> A?8@B0<8. @8 MB>< ?@>8AE>48B =C:;5>D8;L=>5 70<5I5=85 ?>;C0F5B0;L=>3> 384@>:A8;0 8 >1@07CNBAO ?>;=K5 0F5B0;8. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=396 height=82 id="_x0000_i1047" src=Image282.gif></span></p> <p>=0;>38G=> @5038@C5B 3;8:>784=K9 384@>:A8; 2 0;L4>70E 8 :5B>70E. !?8@B>2K5  3@C??K ?@8 MB>< =5 70B@03820NBAO. @>4C:BK 70<5I5=8O 3;8:>784=>3> 384@>:A8;0 =07K20NB <i>3;8:>7840<8</i> (3;8:>?8@0=>7840<8 8;8 3;8:>DC@0=>7840<8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B @07<5@0 F8:;0). 0?@8<5@, ?@8 ?@>?CA:0=88 G5@57 @0AB2>@ D-3;N:>7K 2 <5B0=>;5 307>>1@07=>3> HCl >1@07C5BAO A<5AL <5B8;3;N:>784>2, A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @07=K< B0CB><5@=K< D>@<0< D-3;N:>7K (42C< ?8@0=>7=K< 8 42C< DC@0=>7=K<).  CA;>28OE B5@<>48=0<8G5A:>3> :>=B@>;O 2 @50:F8>==>9 A<5A8 ?@5>1;040NB 1>;55 AB018;L=K5 <5B8;?8@0=>784K. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=470 height=131 id="_x0000_i1046" src=Image283.gif></span></p> <p>5B8;-<span style='font-family:Symbol;mso-char-type:symbol;mso-symbol-font-family: Symbol'><span style='mso-char-type:symbol;mso-symbol-font-family:Symbol'>a</span></span><span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>-D-3;N:>?8@0=>784 1>;LH59 B5@<>48=0<8G5A:>9 AB018;L=>ABLN, G5< <span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>-0=><5@ (0=><5@=K9 MDD5:B) 8 ?>MB><C >1@07C5BAO 2 1>;LH5< :>;8G5AB25. ;8:>784K ACI5AB2CNB B>;L:> 2 F8:;8G5A:>9 D>@<5, ?>MB><C <span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>- 8 <span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>-0=><5@K 3;8:>784>2 =5 <>3CB A?>=B0==> ?5@5E>48BL 4@C3 2 4@C30 2 @57C;LB0B5 B0CB><5@=KE ?@52@0I5=89. ;8:>784K =5 8<5NB A2>1>4=>9 0;L45384=>9 3@C??K 8 O2;ONBAO <i>=52>AAB0=02;820NI8<8 A0E0@0<8</i>. </p> <p>0: ?>;=K5 0F5B0;8 3;8:>784K 384@>;87CNBAO 2 CA;>28OE :8A;>B=>3> :0B0;870 8 CAB>9G82K 2 @07102;5==KE @0AB2>@0E I5;>G59. 5E0=87< :8A;>B=>3> 384@>;870 2:;NG05B ?@>B>=8@>20=85 3;8:>784=>3> :8A;>@>40, @0AI5?;5=85 3;8:>784=>9 !- A2O78 A >1@07>20=85< 3;8:>78;-:0B8>=0, :>B>@K9 70B5< 0B0:C5BAO <>;5:C;>9 2>4K. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=565 height=186 id="_x0000_i1045" src=Image284.gif></span></p> <p> 0AI5?;5=85 3;8:>784=>9 A2O78 206=> A 18>;>38G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C <=>385 ?@8@>4=K5 A>548=5=8O O2;ONBAO 3;8:>7840<8. (8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5BAO D5@<5=B0B82=K9 384@>;87 3;8:>784>2, ?@58<CI5AB2> :>B>@>3> 70:;NG05BAO 2 53> A?5F8D8G=>AB8. ?@545;5==K5 D5@<5=BK 384@>;87CNB B>;L:> <span style='font-family: Symbol'>a</span>- 8;8 B>;L:> <span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>-3;8:>784=K5 A2O78., GB> <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=> 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O :>=D83C@0F88 3;8:>784=>9 A2O78. </p> <p>>;5:C;C 3;8:>7840 @0AA<0B@820NB :0: A>AB>OICN 87 42CE G0AB59  A0E0@=>9 G0AB8 8 <i>03;8:>=0</i>: </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=184 height=69 id="_x0000_i1044" src=Image285.gif></span></p> <p> :0G5AB25 03;8:>=0 2 ?@8@>4=KE 3;8:>7840E <>3CB 2KABC?0BL A?8@BK, D5=>;K, AB5@>84K, A0<8 <>=>A0E0@84K. 5@5G8A;5==K5 03;8:>=K A2O70=K A A0E0@=>9 G0ABLN G5@57 0B>< :8A;>@>40, ?>MB><C B0:85 3;8:>784K =07K20NB <i>-3;8:>7840<8</i>.  ?@8@>45 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K <i>N-3;8:>784K</i>, 2 :>B>@KE 03;8:>=0<8 O2;ONBAO 07>B8ABK5 >A=>20=8O.  =8< >B=>AOBAO <i>=C:;5>784K </i> AB@C:BC@=K5 548=8FK =C:;58=>2KE :8A;>B. </p> <p><b><i>>;CG5=85 ?@>ABKE MD8@>2</i></b> </p> <p>5B8;>2K5 MD8@K ?> A?8@B>2K< 3@C??0<  ?>;CG0NB 459AB285< =0 <>=>A0E0@84K 48<5B8;AC;LD0B0 2 2>4=>< @0AB2>@5 I5;>G8 8;8 <5B8;8>4840 2 ?@8ACBAB288 >:A840 A5@51@0. -B8 <5B>4K O2;ONBAO <>48D8:0F8O<8 A8=B570 8;LO<A>=0. @8 MB>< 2 @50:F8N 2ABC?05B 8 3;8:>784=K9 384@>:A8;. @>ABK5 MD8@K ?> A?8@B>2K< 3@C??0 CAB>9G82K : 384@>;87C, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 3;8:>784=0O A2O7L ;53:> @0AI5?;O5BAO 2 :8A;>9 A@545. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=620 height=126 id="_x0000_i1043" src=Image286.gif></span></p> <p>@82545==0O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL @50:F89 (<5B8;8@>20=85, 70B5< 384@>;87) 8A?>;L7C5BAO 4;O >?@545;5=8O @07<5@0 F8:;0 2 <>=>A0E0@840E. 5<5B8;8@>20==>9 >AB05BAO 3@C??0 , :>B>@0O CG0AB2>20;0 2 >1@07>20=88 F8:;8G5A:>3> ?>;C0F5B0;O. :8A;5=85 >1@07>202H59AO B5B@0<5B8;-D-3;N:>7K 07>B=>9 :8A;>B>9 2 65AB:8E CA;>28OE 405B A=0G0;0 :5B>:8A;>BC, 0 70B5< B@8<5B>:A83;CB0@>2CN 8 48<5B>:A8O=B0@=CN :8A;>BK. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=520 height=169 id="_x0000_i1042" src=Image287.gif></span></p> <p>!>AB02 ?@>4C:B>2 >:8A;5=8O C:07K205B =0 B>, GB> :5B>3@C??0, 0, A;54>20B5;L=>, 8 A2>1>4=0O 384@>:A83@C??0 =0E>48;8AL 2 ?>;>65=88 5. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> F8:; 1K; ?8@0=>7=K<. </p> <p><b><i>>;CG5=85 A;>6=KE MD8@>2</i></b> </p> <p>84@>:A8;L=K5 3@C??K <>=>A0E0@84>2 ;53:> MB5@8D8F8@CNBAO 459AB285< 0=384@8@84>2 8 E;>@0=384@84>2 :0@1>=>2KE :8A;>B. '0I5 2A53> 8A?>;L7CNB 0F5B8;8@>20=85 C:ACA=K< 0=384@84>< 2 ?@8ACBAB288 :8A;>B=>3> (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>, ZnCl<sub>2</sub>) 8;8 >A=>2=>3> (?8@848=, !H<sub>3</sub>COONa) :0B0;870B>@0. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=468 height=136 id="_x0000_i1041" src=Image288.gif></span></p> <p>!>>B=>H5=85 <span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>-&nbsp; 8<span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>-0=><5@>2 7028A8B >B CA;>289 ?@>2545=8O @50:F88.  CA;>28OE B5@<>48=0<8G5A:>3> :>=B@>;O (2KA>:0O B5<?5@0BC@0, :8A;>B=K9 :0B0;870B>@) ?@5>1;0405B 1>;55 AB018;L=K9 <span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>-0=><5@ (0=><5@=K9 MDD5:B).  CA;>28OE :8=5B8G5A:>3> :>=B@>;O (B5<?5@0BC@0 =865 0<sup>0</sup>!, >A=>2=>9 :0B0;870B>@) ?@58<CI5AB25==> >1@07C5BAO <span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>-0=><5@, ?>A:>;L:C M:20B>@80;L=0O 3@C??0  0F8;8@C5BAO A 1>;LH59 A:>@>ABLN, G5< 0:A80;L=0O. </p> <p>;O C40;5=8O 0F5B8;L=KE 3@C?? 8A?>;L7CNB ?5@5MB5@8D8:0F8N 459AB285< <5B8;0B0 =0B@8O 2 <5B0=>;5. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=396 height=96 id="_x0000_i1040" src=Image289.gif></span></p> <p><b><i>>;CG5=85 ?@>872>4=KE ?> :0@1>=8;L=>9 3@C??5. 1@07>20=85 >707>=>2</i></b> </p> <p>>=>A0E0@84K 2ABC?0NB 2> <=>385 @50:F88 =C:;5>D8;L=>3> ?@8A>548=5=8O ?> :0@1>=8;L=>9 3@C??5, E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O 0;L45384>2 8 :5B>=>2: ?@8A>548=ONB HCN, NH<sub>2</sub>OH, D5=8;384@078=. @8 459AB288 871KB:0 D5=8;384@078=0 >1@07CNBAO >707>=K. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=552 height=113 id="_x0000_i1039" src=Image290.gif></span></p> <p>-?8<5@K ?> !-2, =0?@8<5@, D-3;N:>70 8 D-<0==>70, 40NB >48= 8 B>B 65 >707>=, GB> 8A?>;L7C5BAO 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O AB5@5>E8<8G5A:>9 :>=D83C@0F88 <>=>A0E0@84>2. 5B>7K B0:65 >1@07CNB >707>=K. 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A>AB025 A0E0@>7K D-3;N:>70 =0E>48BAO 2 ?8@0=>7=>9, 0 D-D@C:B>70  2 DC@0=>7=>9 D>@<5. !0E0@>70  =52>AAB0=02;820NI89 48A0E0@84. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=310 height=207 id="_x0000_i1030" src=Image299.gif></span><br> &nbsp; <br> &nbsp; </p> <p><b><i>2.2. %8<8G5A:85 A2>9AB20</i></b></p> <p>8A0E0@84K 2ABC?0NB 2 1>;LH8=AB2> @50:F89, E0@0:B5@=KE 4;O <>=>A0E0@84>2: >1@07CNB ?@>ABK5 8 A;>6=K5 MD8@K, 3;8:>784K, ?@>872>4=K5 ?> :0@1>=8;L=>9 3@C??5. >AAB0=02;820NI85 48A0E0@84K >:8A;ONBAO 4> 3;8:>18>=>2KE :8A;>B. ;8:>784=0O A2O7L 2 48A0E0@840E @0AI5?;O5BAO ?>4 459AB285< 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2 :8A;>B 8 D5@<5=B>2.  @07102;5==KE @0AB2>@0E I5;>G59 48A0E0@84K CAB>9G82K. $5@<5=BK 459AB2CNB A5;5:B82=>, @0AI5?;OO B>;L:> <span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>- 8;8 B>;L:> <span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>-3;8:>784=CN A2O7L. </p> <p>>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL @50:F89  >:8A;5=85, <5B8;8@>20=85, 384@>;87, ?>72>;O5B CAB0=>28BL AB@>5=85 48A0E0@840. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=628 height=256 id="_x0000_i1029" src=Image300.gif></span></p> <p>:8A;5=85 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL >?@545;8BL, >AB0B>: :0:>3> <>=>A0E0@840 =0E>48BAO =0 2>AAB0=02;820NI5< :>=F5. 5B8;8@>20=85 8 384@>;87 40NB 8=D>@<0F8N > ?>;>65=88 3;8:>784=>9 A2O78 8 @07<5@0E F8:;0 <>=>A0E0@84=KE 725=L52. >=D83C@0F8O 3;8:>784=>9 A2O78 (<span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span> 8;8&nbsp; <span style='font-family:Symbol'>b</span>) <>65B 1KBL >?@545;5=0 A ?><>ILN D5@<5=B0B82=>3> 384@>;870. <br> &nbsp; </p> <p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt'>3. <a name=>;8A0E0@84K>>;8A0E0@84K</a></span></b><span style='mso-bookmark:>;8A0E0@84K'></span></p> <p>>;8A0E0@84K  ?>;8<5@K, ?>AB@>5==K5 87 <>=>A0E0@84=KE >AB0B:>2, A2O70==KE 3;8:>784=K<8 A2O7O<8. >;8A0E0@84K <>3CB 8<5BL <i>;8=59=>5</i> 8;8 <i>@0725B2;5==>5</i> AB@>5=85. >;8A0E0@84K, A>AB>OI85 8E >48=0:>2KE <>=>A0E0@84=KE >AB0B:>2, =07K20NB <i>3><>?>;8A0E0@840<8</i>, 87 >AB0B:>2 @07=KE <>=>A0E0@84>2  <i>35B5@>?>;8A0E0@840<8</i>. </p> <p><b><i>@0E<0;</i>  </b>?>;8A0E0@84 @0AB8B5;L=>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O. 3> >A=>2=0O 18>;>38G5A:0O DC=:F8O  70?0A=>5 25I5AB2> @0AB5=89. @0E<0; ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A<5AL 42CE ?>;8A0E0@84>2  <i>0<8;>7K</i> (10-20%) 8 <i>0<8;>?5:B8=0</i> (80-90%) </p> <p><8;>70  ;8=59=K9 3><>?>;8A0E0@84, A>AB>OI89 87 >AB0B:>2 D-3;N:>?8@0=>7K, A2O70==KE&nbsp; <span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>-1,4-3;8:>784=K<8 A2O7O<8. !B@C:BC@=K< M;5<5=B>< 0<8;>7K O2;O5BAO 48A0E0@84 <0;LB>70. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=361 height=116 id="_x0000_i1028" src=Image301.gif></span></p> <p>&5?L 0<8;>7K 2:;NG05B >B 200 4> 1000 <>=>A0E0@84=KE 548=8F. A;54AB285 0:A80;L=>3> ?>;>65=8O 3;8:>784=>9 A2O78 <0:@><>;5:C;0 0<8;>7K A25@=CB0 2 A?8@0;L. </p> <p><8;>?5:B8=  @0725B2;5==K9 3><>?>;8A0E0@84, ?>AB@>5==K9 87 >AB0B:>2 D-3;N:>?8@0=>7K, :>B>@K5 A2O70=K 2 >A=>2=>9 F5?8&nbsp; <span style='font-family: Symbol'>a</span>-1,4-3;8:>784=K<8, 0 2 <5AB0E @0725B2;5=89 -&nbsp; <span style='font-family:Symbol'>a</span>-1,6-3;8:>784=K<8 A2O7O<8. 0725B2;5=8O @0A?>;>65=K G5@57 :064K5 20-25 <>=>A0E0@84=KE >AB0B:>2. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=476 height=201 id="_x0000_i1027" src=Image302.gif></span></p> <p>@0E<0; =01CE05B 8 @0AB2>@O5BAO 2 2>45, >1@07CO 2O7:85 @0AB2>@K (35;8). %8<8G5A:85 A2>9AB20 :@0E<0;0 0=0;>38G=K A2>9AB20< <>=>- 8 48A0E0@84>2. @0E<0; 384@>;87C5BAO ?>4 459AB285< :8A;>B (=> =5 I5;>G59) 8 D5@<5=B0 0<8;07K. >=5G=K< ?@>4C:B>< 384@>;870 :@0E<0;0 O2;O5BAO D-3;N:>70. </p> <p>(C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>10</sub>O<sub>5</sub>)<sub>n</sub> ----&gt;&nbsp; (C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>10</sub>O<sub>5</sub>)<sub>m</sub> ----&gt;C<sub>12</sub>H<sub>22</sub>O<sub>11</sub> ----&gt; C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>12</sub>O<sub>6</sub></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=492 style='width:369.0pt;mso-cellspacing:0cm;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width="28%" valign=top style='width:28.0%;padding:5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt'> <blockquote style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-bottom:5.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:@0E<0;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </blockquote> </td> <td width="25%" valign=top style='width:25.0%;padding:5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>45:AB@8=K&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width="20%" valign=top style='width:20.0%;padding:5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><0;LB>70&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width="26%" valign=top style='width:26.0%;padding:5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt 5.25pt'> <blockquote style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-bottom:5.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>D-3;N:>70<o:p></o:p></span></p> </blockquote> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>n&gt;m<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p>0 AG5B A?8@0;5>1@07=>9 :>=D>@<0F88 0<8;>70 A?>A>1=0 >1@07>2K20BL A>548=5=8O 2:;NG5=8O A <>;5:C;O@=K< 8>4><. ><?;5:AK :@0E<0;0 A 8>4>< 8<5NB 8=B5=A82=CN A8=NN >:@0A:C. 50:F8O 8A?>;L7C5BAO :0: :0G5AB25==0O =0 8>4 8 :@0E<0;. </p> <p><b><i>&5;;N;>70</i></b>  A0<K9 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 @0AB8B5;L=K9 ?>;8A0E0@84. K?>;=O5B DC=:F8N >?>@=>3> <0B5@80;0 @0AB5=89. -B> ;8=59=K9 3><>?>;8A0E0@84, ?>AB@>5==K9 87 >AB0B:>2 D-3;N:>?8@0=>7K, A2O70==KE <span style='font-family: Symbol'>b</span>-1,4-3;8:>784=K<8 A2O7O<8. !B@C:BC@=K< M;5<5=B>< F5;;N;>7K O2;O5BAO F5;;>18>70. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=348 height=113 id="_x0000_i1026" src=Image303.gif></span></p> <p>;8:>784=0O A2O7L 2 F5;;N;>75 8<55B M:20B>@80;L=>5 ?>;>65=85. -B> >?@545;O5B ;8=59=CN :>=D>@<0F8N F5;;N;>7K, :>B>@0O AB018;878@>20=0 2>4>@>4=K<8 A2O7O<8. </p> <p><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><img border=0 width=574 height=81 id="_x0000_i1025" src=Image304.gif></span></p> <p>0:@><>;5:C;K F5;;N;>7K >1@07CNB 2>;>:=0.  >B;8G85 >B :@0E<0;0 F5;;N;>70 2 2>45 =5 =01CE05B 8 =5 @0AB2>@O5BAO. ;O ?5@52>40 F5;;N;>7K 2 @0AB2>@8<CN D>@<C =5>1E>48<0 5Q E8<8G5A:0O <>48D8:0F8O. </p> <p>&5;;N;>70 =01CE05B 2 @0AB2>@0E I5;>G59, GB> A2O70=> A >1@07>20=85< 0;:>:A84>2. </p> <p><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>[C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>x</sub> + x NaOH ----&gt; [C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub>O<sup>-</sup>Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>x</sub> + x H<sub>2</sub>O <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p> 0AB2>@5=85 F5;;N;>7K 2 @50:B825 )259F5@0 [Cu(NH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>4</sub>](OH)<sub>2</sub> ?@>8AE>48B 70 AG5B >1@07>20=8O :><?;5:A=KE 0;:>:A84>2, GB> E0@0:B5@=> 4;O A>548=5=89, A>45@60I8E <i>28F</i>-48>;L=K5 3@C??8@>2:8. @8 ?>4:8A;5=88 @0AB2>@0 2K45;O5BAO F5;;N;>70 2 4@C3>9 <>48D8:0F88, :>B>@CN 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O ?>;CG5=8O 8A:CAAB25==>3> H5;:0. </p> <p>&5;;N;>70 @0AB2>@O5BAO 2 I5;>G0E 2 ?@8ACBAB288 CS<sub>2</sub>, >1@07CO :A0=B>35=0BK. </p> <p><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>[C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>x</sub> + x NaOH + x CS<sub>2 </sub>----&gt;<sub> </sub>[C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub>O-C(S)-S<sup>-</sup> Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>x</sub> + x H<sub>2</sub>O<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p>@8 ?>4:8A;5=88 @0AB2>@0 2K45;O5BAO F5;;N;>70, :>B>@CN 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O 28A:>7=>3> H5;:0 8 F5;;>D0=0. </p> <p>@8 459AB288 C:ACA=>3> 0=384@840 2 ?@8ACBAB288 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK >1@07C5BAO B@80F5B8;F5;;N;>70. </p> <p><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>[C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>x</sub> + 3x (CH<sub>3</sub>CO)<sub>2</sub>O ----&gt; [C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OCOCH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>x</sub> + 3x CH<sub>3</sub>COOH <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p>F5B8;F5;;N;>70 @0AB2>@O5BAO 2 >@30=8G5A:8E @0AB2>@8B5;OE. Q 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O 0F5B0B=>3> H5;:0 8 =53>@NG59 :8=>- 8 D>B>?;5=:8. </p> <p>708<>459AB285< F5;;N;>7K A =8B@CNI59 A<5ALN ?>;CG0NB =8B@0BK F5;;N;>7K. <br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>HNO<sub>3</sub>[H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; HNO<sub>3</sub>[H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; HNO<sub>3</sub>[H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>] <br> [C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>x</sub> ----------------&gt;[C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub>ONO<sub>2</sub>]<sub>x</sub>----------------&gt;C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(OH)(ONO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>]<sub>x</sub> ---------------&gt; <br> ----&gt;&nbsp; [C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>7</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(ONO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>x</sub> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p>8B@>F5;;N;>70 @0AB2>@8<0 2 >@30=8G5A:8E @0AB2>@8B5;OE. @>4C:BK A <0;K< A>45@60=85< 07>B0 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O ;0:>2. 8=8B@0B F5;;N;>7K 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O ?;5=>:. 8B@>F5;;N;>7C A <0:A8<0;L=K< A>45@60=85< 07>B0 =07K20NB ?8@>:A8;8=>< 8 ?@8<5=ONB 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O 1574K<=>3> ?>@>E0. </p> </div> </body> </html> <b STYLE='DISPLAY: NONE;'>